Stargardt Disease Research Advances
Recent developments in research on Stargardt disease
Acucela Conducting Clinical Trial of Drug for Stargardt Disease
Emixustat, an oral drug which originally targeted the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is conducting a Phase 3 clinical trial for Stargardt disease. While the drug did not meet desired outcomes in the AMD clinical trial, experts believe it may work well for people with Stargardt disease. Developed by Acucela, the drug works by slowing the buildup of toxic waste products that lead to retinal degeneration in a number of retinal conditions, including Stargardt disease.
Alkeus Launches Clinical Trial for Drug Designed to Reduce Toxins in Retina
The biotech company Alkeus is conducting a multi-center Phase II clinical trial for a drug (ALK-001) that targets the toxic build-up in the retina that is thought to cause degeneration and vision loss. The emerging therapy is a modified form of vitamin A, which when metabolized in the retina, results in much less waste. Scientists developed ALK-001 by replacing hydrogen atoms in vitamin A with deuterium. Known as deuterated vitamin A, it “burns cleaner” than the natural form. Deuterium is a safe, naturally occurring, stable form of hydrogen, which is present in the human body.
Stargardt Disease Natural History Study Will Help Prepare for Future Clinical Trials
The Foundation Fighting Blindness Clinical Research Institute is completing a $6 million natural history study for people affected by Stargardt disease. Known as ProgSTAR, the study has three primary goals: 1) Determine the best outcome measures to accelerate evaluation of emerging treatments in clinical trials, 2) better understand disease progression for selecting future clinical trial participants, and 3) identify potential participants for forthcoming clinical trials. The study has enrolled 365 patients in 10 international clinical centers.
Research Team Is Creating Patch Derived from Stem Cells to Restore Vision
David Gamm, MD, PhD, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, is leading a team of experts to create a patch composed of retinal cells derived from stem cells as a vision-restoring therapy for people with macular conditions such as Stargardt disease. The company Opsis Therapeutics was recently formed to advance the therapy into and through a clinical trial and out to the patients who need it. The patch consists of two layers. One layer will serve as a precursor to vision-enabling photoreceptors. Once transplanted, the stem cells of this layer will mature into photoreceptors. The other layer will consist of mature retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which provide waste disposal and nutrition for photoreceptors. A thin plastic film will serve as a structural backbone for the patch. A biodegradable gel will protect the cells and hold the layers together. The Foundation Fighting Blindness currently funds the project, and has funded Dr. Gamm for more than a decade to advance this therapeutic approach.
Emerging Pharmacological Treatment for Stargardt Disease
Vitamin A, metabolized in the retina, is essential for vision. Many researchers believe that Stargardt disease, an inherited form of macular degeneration, is caused by the accumulation of toxic byproducts caused by the metabolic process. Konstantin Petrukhin, PhD, an FFB-funded researcher at Columbia University Medical Center, is developing a compound that blocks a protein known as retinal binding protein 4 (RBP4) — doing so reduces the accumulation of toxic vitamin A byproducts. He has shown that the drug reduces these toxins in a Stargardt disease mouse model. Dr. Petrukhin is optimizing the compound for evaluation in additional preclinical studies.
High-Throughput Screening of Small Molecules Protecting Retinal Cells
Shigemi Matsuyama, Ph.D., a Foundation-funded investigator at Case Western Reserve University, has used high-throughput screening to identify a small molecule that can inhibit retinal cell death. He is now conducting a medicinal chemistry program to improve the characteristics of this molecule and develop a pharmaceutically acceptable compound. If successful, his drug could be applicable to many forms of retinal disease, independent of the underlying genetic mutation.
Gene Therapies in Development for Stargradt Disease
Applied Genetics Technology Corporation and Iveric bio are biotech companies developing gene therapies for Stargardt disease. Their projects are currently in preclinical development and involve replacing mutated copies of the ABCA4 gene with normal copies.
Iveric Bio Conducting Clinical Trial of Complement Inhibitor for Stargardt Disease
Iveric bio is conducting a Phase 2 clinical trial for Zimura, a C5 complement inhibitor designed to slow the progression of Stargardt disease. In many retinal diseases, the complement system (part of the innate immune system) is overactive, thereby exacerbating retinal degeneration and accelerating vision loss.